Phonology of Expressive Speech: refers to the patterns of speech sounds.
Childhood Apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurological childhood (pediatric) speech sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits (e.g., abnormal reflexes, abnormal tone). CAS may occur as a result of known neurological impairment, in association with complex neuro-behavioral disorders of known or unknown origin, or as an idiopathic neurogenic speech sound disorder. The core impairment in planning and/or programming spatio-temporal parameters of movement sequences results in errors in speech sound production and prosody.
Family Start Guide: https://www.apraxia-kids.org/guides/family-start-guide/
Apraxia 101 video: http://www.letstalkspeech-mass.com/childhood-apraxia-of-speech.html
Articulation Disorder is the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortions that may interfere with intelligibility.
Many of the phonological and articulation issues are caused by ear infections or fluid in the ear as a young child. "Recurrent Acute Otitis Media or repeated ear infections with collection of fluid in the middle ear (middle ear effusion) during the first year can produce language and speech delays as a function of poor hearing." Source: http://babylab.rutgers.edu/Benasich_Research_Interests.html
Potential Risk Factors and Questions to Ask Yourself:
Does your child have a hearing impairment?
Has your child had frequent ear infections or more than 3 ear infections before the age of one?
Does your child have a cleft palate or lip?
Can you understand your child?
Can others (who are not familiar to him) understand him?
Does he leave out many sounds within a word (i.e. "pa" for "spot") or have no sounds?
Does he use more gestures than words to get his message across?
Is it difficult for him to say words that contain more than one syllable such as cowboy or motorcycle?
Is he not able to say sounds correctly that his friends are able to say?
Does your child have difficulty with eating.
Is his face typically more "messy" after eating than other kids his age?
Does he say the same word differently each time he says it?
Does he say some words great certain days and cannot say them again the next day?
Are single words said better than when he talks in sentences?
Does he drool?
Was he a "quiet" baby?
This is not an exhaustive list of at risk questions, but only a guide. Please call us anytime if you have concerns about your child's speech development.